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Preston Illustrations of Masonry- Book 2 General Remarks

Section 1 - General Remarks.

Section 2 - The Ceremony of Opening and Closing A Lodge

Section 3 - Remarks on the First Lecture.

Section 4 - Remarks on the Second Lecture.

Section 5 - Remarks on the Third Lecture

Section 6 - Of the Ancient Ceremonies of the Order

Section 4. - Remarks on the Second Lecture

Masonry is a progressive science, and divided into different classes or degrees, for a more regular advancement in the knowledge of its mysteries. According to the progress we make, we limit or extend our inquiries; and, in proportion to our capacity, we attain to a less or greater degree or perfection.

Masonry includes almost every branch of polite learning. Under the veil of its mysteries, is comprehended a regular system of science. Many of its illustrations may appear unimportant to the confined genius; but the man of more enlarged faculties will consider them in the highest degree useful and interesting. To please the accomplished scholar and ingenious artist, it is wisely planned; and in the investigation of its latent doctrines, the philosopher and mathematician may experience satisfaction and delight.

To exhaust the various subjects of which masonry treats, would transcend the powers of the brightest genius; still, however, nearer approaches to perfection may be made, and the man of wisdom will not check the progress of his abilities, though the task he attempts may at first seem insurmountable. Perseverance and application will remove each difficulty as it occurs; every step he advances, new pleasures will open to his view, and instruction of the noblest kind attend his researches. In the diligent pursuit of knowledge, great discoveries are made, and the intellectual faculties are employed in promoting the glory of God, and the good of man.

Such is the tendency of every illustration in masonry. Reverence for the Deity, and gratitude for the blessings of heaven, are inculcated in every degree. This is the plan of our system, and the result of all our inquiries.

The First Degree is intended to enforce the duties of morality, and imprint on the memory the noblest principles which can adorn the human mind. The Second Degree extends the fame plan, and comprehends a more diffusive system of knowledge. Practice and theory qualify the industrious mason to share the pleasures which an advancement in the Art necessarily affords. Listening with attention to the wise opinions of experienced craftsmen on important subjects, his mind is gradually familiarised to useful instruction, and he is soon enabled to investigate truths of the utmost concern in the general transactions of life.

From this system proceeds a rational amusement; the mental powers are fully employed, and the judgement is properly exercised. A spirit of emulation prevails; and every one vies, who shall most excel in promoting the valuable rules of institution.

[The full text of the lectures can be found under Lectures of The Craft menu tab]

The First Section

The First Section of the Second Degree elucidates the mode of introduction into this class; and instructs the diligent craftsman how to proceed in the proper arrangement of the ceremonies, which enables him to judge of their importance, and convinces him of the necessity of adhering to the established usages of the Order. Here he is entrusted with particular tests, to prove his title to the privileges of this degree, and satisfactory reasons are given for their origin. Many duties which cement in the firmest union will-informed brethren, are illustrated; and an opportunity is given to make such advances in masonry as must always distinguish the abilities of able craftsmen.

This Section recapitulates the ceremony of initiation, and contains many important particulars with which no officer of a lodge should be unacquainted.

Charge at Initiation into the Second Degree

[The sentences inclosed in brackets [  ] may be occasionally omitted.]


Being advanced to the Second Degree we congratulate you on your preferment. [The internal, and not the external, qualifications of a man, are what masonry regards. As you increase in knowledge, you will improve in social intercourse. It is unnecessary to recapitulate the duties which, as a mason, you are bound to discharge; or enlarge on the necessity of a strict adherence to them, as your own experience must have established their value. It may be sufficient to observe, that] Your past behaviour and regular deportment have merited the honour which we have conferred; and in your new character, it is expected that you will conform to the principles of the Order, and steadily persevere in the practice of every commendable virtue.

The study of the liberal arts [that valuable branch of education, which tends so effectually to polish and adorn the mind] is earnestly recommended to your consideration; especially the science of geometry, which is established as the basis of our Art.

[Geometry, or Masonry, originally synonymous terms, being divine and moral nature, is enriched with the most useful knowledge; while it proves the wonderful properties of nature, it demonstrates the more important truths of morality.]

As the solemnity of our ceremonies requires a serious deportment, you are to be particularly attentive to your behaviour in our regular assemblies; you are to preserve our ancient usages and customs sacred and inviolable; and you are to induce others, by your example, to hold them in veneration.

The laws and regulations of the Order you are strenuously to support and maintain. You are not to palliate, or aggravate, the offences of your brethren; but, in the decision of every trespass against our rules, judge with candour, admonish with friendship, and reprehend with justice.

As a craftsman, in our private assemblies you may offer your sentiments and opinions on such subjects as are regularly introduced in the Lecture. By this privilege you may improve your intellectual powers; qualify yourself to become an useful member of society; and, like a skilful brother, strive to excel in every thing that is good and great.

[The following two paragraphs in brackets [ ] can be omitted, if previously used in the course of the ceremony.

[All regular signs an summonses, given and received, you are duly to honour, and punctually to obey; inasmuch as they consist with our professed principles. You are to supply the wants, and relieve the necessities, of your brethren, to the utmost of your power and ability: and you are on no account to wrong them, or see them wronged; but apprise them of approaching danger, and view their interest as inseparable from your own.

Such is the nature of your engagements as a craftsman; and to these duties you are bound by the most sacred ties.]

The Second Section

The Second Section of this Degree presents an ample field for the man of genius to perambulate. It cursorily specifies the particular classes of the Order, and explains the requisite qualifications for preferment in each. In the explanation of our usages, many remarks are introduced, equally useful to the experienced artist and the sage moralist. The various operations of the mind are demonstrated, as far as they will admit of elucidation, and a fund of extensive science is explored throughout. Here we find employment for leisure hours, trace science from its original source, and, drawing the attention to the sum of perfection, contemplate with admiration on the wonderful works of the Creator. Geometry is displayed, with all its powers and properties; and, in the disquisition of this science, the mind is filled with pleasure and delight. Such is the latitude of this Section, that the most judicious may fail in an attempt to explain it, as the rational powers are exerted to their utmost stretch, in illustration the beauties of nature, and demonstrating the more important truths of morality.

As the orders of architecture come under consideration in this Section, a brief description of them nay not be improper.

By order in architecture, is meant a system of all the members, proportions, and ornaments of columns and pilasters; or, it is a regular arrangement of the projecting parts of a building, which, united with those of a column, form a beautiful, perfect, and complete whole. Order in architecture may be traced from the first formation of society. When the rigour of seasons obliged men to contrive shelter from the inclemency of the weather, we learn hat they first planted trees on end, and then laid others across, to support a covering. The bands which connected those trees at top and bottom, are said to have suggested the idea of the base and capital of pillars; and from this simple hint originally proceeded the more improved art of architecture.

The five orders are thus classed: the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite.

The Tuscan is the most simple and solid of the five orders. It was invented in Tuscany, whence it derives its name. Its column is seven diameters high; and its capital, base, and entablature have but few mouldings. The simplicity of construction of this column renders it eligible where solidity is the chief object, and where ornament would be superfluous.

The Doric order, which is plain and natural, is the most ancient, and was invented by the Greeks. Its column is eight diameters high, and has seldom any ornaments on base or capital, except mouldings; though the frieze is distinguished by triglyphs and metopes, and the triglyphs compose the ornaments of the frieze. The solid composition of this order gives it a preference, in structures where strength and a noble simplicity are chiefly required.

The Doric is the best proportioned of all the orders. The several parts of which it is composed are founded on the natural position of solid bodies. In its first invention it was more simple than in its present state. In aftertimes, when it began to be adorned, it gained the name of Doric; for when it was constructed in its primitive and simple form, the name of Tuscan was conferred on it. Hence the Tuscan precedes the Doric in rank, on account of its resemblance to that pillar in its original state.

The Ionic bears a kind of mean proportion between the more solid and delicate orders. Its column is nine diameters high; its capital is adorned with volutes, and its cornice has denticles. There is both delicacy and ingenuity displayed in this pillar; the invention of which is attributed to the Ionians, as the famous temple of Diana at Ephefus was of this order. It is said to have been formed after the model of an agreeable young woman, of an elegant shape, dressed in her hair; as a contrast to the Doric order, which was formed after that of a strong robust man.

The Corinthian, the richest of the five orders, is deemed a master-piece of art, and was invented at Corinth by Callimachus. Its column is ten diameters high, and its capital is adorned with two rows of leaves, and eight volutes, which sustain the abacus. The frieze is ornamented with curious devices, the cornice with denticles and modillions. This order is used in stately and superb structures.

Callimachus is said to have taken the hint of the capital of this pillar from the following remarkable circumstance. Accidentally passing by the tomb of a young lady, he perceived a basket of toys, covered with a tile placed over an acan, but root, having been left there by her nurse. As the branches grew up, they encompassed the basket, till, arriving at the tile, they met with an obstruction, and bent downwards. Callimachus, struck with the object, set about imitating the figure; the vase of the capital he made to represent the basket; the abacus, the tile; and the volute, the bending leaves.

The Composite is compounded of the other orders, and was contrived by the Romans. Its capital has the two rows of leaves of the Corinthian, and the volutes of the Ionic. Its column has the quarter-round as the Tuscan and Doric orders, is ten diameters high, and its cornice has denticles or simple modillions. This pillar is generally found in buildings where strength, elegance, and beauty are united.

The original orders of architecture, revered by masons, are no more than three, the Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. To these the Romans have added two, the Tuscan, which they made plainer than the Doric; and the Composite, which was more ornamental, if not more beautiful, than the Corinthian. The first three orders alone, however, shew invention and particular character, and essentially differ from each other: the two others have nothing but what is borrowed, and differ only accidentally; the Tuscan is the Doric in its earliest state; and the Composite is the Corinthian enriched with the Ionic. To the Greeks, and not the Romans, we are indebted for what is great, judicious, and distinct in architecture.

These observations are intended to induce the industrious craftsman to pursue his researches into the rise and progress of architecture, by consulting the works of learned writers professedly upon the subject.

An analysis of the human faculties is also given in this Section, in which the five external senses particularly claim attention.

When these topics are proposed in our assemblies, we are not confined to any peculiar mode of explanation; but every brother is at liberty to offer his sentiments under proper restrictions. The following thoughts on this important branch of learning may, however, be useful.

The senses we are to consider as the gifts of Nature, and the primary regulators of our active powers; as by them alone we are conscious of the distance, nature, and properties of external objects. Reason, properly employed, confirms the documents of Nature, which are always true and wholesome: she distinguishes the good from the bad; rejects the last with modesty, adheres to the first with reverence.

The objects of human knowledge are innumerable; the channels by which this knowledge are innumerable; the channels by which this knowledge is conveyed, are few. Among these, the perception of external things by the senses, and the information we receive from human testimony, are not the least considerable; the analogy between them is obvious. In the testimony of Nature given by the senses, as well as in human testimony given by information, things are signified y signs. In one as well as the other, the mind, either by original principles or by custom, passes from the sign to the conception and belief of the thing signified. The signs in the natural language, as well as the signs in our original perceptions, have the same signification in all climates and nations, and the skill of interpreting them is not acquired, but innate.

Having made these observations, we shall proceed to give a brief description of the five senses.

Hearing is that sense by which we distinguish sounds, and are capable of enjoying all the agreeable charms of music. By it we are enabled to enjoy the pleasures of society, and reciprocally to communicate to each other, our thoughts and intentions, our purposes and desires; while our reason is capable of exerting its utmost power and energy.

The wise and beneficent Author of Nature intended, by the formation of this sense, that we should be social creatures, and receive the greatest and most important part of our knowledge by the information of others. For these purposes we are endowed with Hearing, that by a proper exertion of our rational powers, our happiness may be complete.

Seeing is that sense by which we distinguish objects, and in an instant of time, without change of place or situation, view armies in battle array, figures of the most stately structures, and all the agreeable variety displayed in the landscape of nature. By this sense we find our way in the pathless ocean, traverse the globe of earth, determine its figure and dimensions, and delineate any region or quarter of it. By it we measure the planetary orbs, and make new discoveries in the sphere of the fixed stars. Nay more ; by it we perceive the tempers and dispositions, the passions and affections, of our fellow-creatures, when they wish most to conceal them, so that though the tongue might be taught to lie and dissemble, the countenance would display the hypocrisy to the discerning eye. In fine, the rays of light, which administer to this sense, are the most astonishing parts of the inanimate creation, and render the eye a peculiar object of admiration.

Of all the faculties, sight is the noblest. The structure of the eye, and its appurtenances, evince the admirable contrivance of Nature for performing all its various external and internal motions; while the variety displayed in the eyes of different animals, suited to their several ways of life, clearly demonstrates this organ to be the master-piece of Natures work.

Feeling is that sense by which we distinguish the different qualities of bodies; such as heat and cold, hardness and softness, roughness and smoothness, figure, solidity, motion, and extension; which, by means of certain corresponding sensations of touch, are presented to the mind as real external qualities, and the conception or belief of them is invariably connected with those corresponding sensations, by an original principle of human nature, which far transcends our inquiry.

All knowledge beyond our original perceptions is got by experience. The constancy of Nature's laws connects the sign with the thing signified, and we rely on the continuance of that connection which experience hath discovered.

These three senses, hearing, seeing, and feeling, are deemed peculiarly essential among masons.

Smelling is that sense by which we distinguish odours, which convey different impressions to the mind. Animal and vegetable bodies, and indeed most other bodies, continually send forth effluvia of vast subtlety, as well in the state of life and growth, as in the state of fermentation and putrefaction. The volatile particles probably repel each other, and scatter themselves in the air, till they meet with other bodies to which they bear a chemical affinity, with which they unite, and form new concretes. These effluvia being drawn into the nostrils along with the air, are the means by which all bodies are smelled. Hence it is evident, there is a manifest appearance of design in the great Creator's having planted the organ of smell in the inside of that canal, through which the air continually passes in respiration.

Tasting enables us to make a proper distinction in the choice of our food. The organ of this sense guards the entrance of the alimentary canal, as that of smell guards the entrance of the canal for respiration. From the situation of these organs, it is plain that they were intended by Nature to distinguish wholesome food from that which is nauseous. Every thing that enters into the stomach must undergo the scrutiny of Tasting, and by it we are capable of discerning the changes which the same body undergoes in the different compositions of art, cookery, chemistry, pharmacy, &c.

Smelling and Tasting are inseparably connected, and it is by the unnatural kind of life men commonly lead in society, that these senses are rendered less fit to perform their natural offices.

Through the medium of the senses we are enabled to form just and accurate notions of the operations of Nature; and when we reflect on the means by which the senses are gratified, we become conscious of the existence of bodies, and attend to them, till they are rendered familiar objects of thought.

To understand and analize the operations of the mind, is an attempt in which the most judicious may fail. All we know is, that the senses are the channels of communication to the mind, which is ultimately affected by their operation; and when the mind is diseased, every sense loses its virtue. The fabric of the mind, as well as that of the body, is curious and wonderful; the faculties of the one are adapted to their several ends with equal wisdom, and no less propriety, than the organs of the other. The inconceivable wisdom of an Almighty Being is displayed in the structure of the mind, which extends its power over every branch of science; and is therefore a theme peculiarly worthy of attention. In the arts and sciences which have least connection with the mind, its faculties are still the engines which we must employ; the better we understand their nature and use, their defects and disorders, we shall apply them with the greater success. In the noblest arts, the mind is the subject upon which we operate.

Wise men agree, that there is but one way to the knowledge of Nature's works - the way of observation and experiment. By our constitution we have a strong propensity to trace particular facts and observations to general rules, and to apply those rules to account for other effects, or to direct us in the production of them. This procedure of the understanding is familiar in the common affairs of life, and is the means by which every real discovery in philosophy is made.

On the mind all our knowledge must depend; it therefore constitutes a proper subject for the investigation of masons. Although by anatomical dissection and observation we may become acquainted with the body, it is by the anatomy of the mind alone we can discover its powers and principles.

To sum up the whole of this transcendent measure of God's bounty to man, we may add, that memory, imagination, taste, reasoning, moral perception, and all the active powers of the soul, present such a vast and boundless field for philosophical disquisition, as far exceeds human inquiry, and are peculiar mysteries, known only to Nature, and to Nature's God, to whom all are indebted for creation, preservation, and every blessing they enjoy.

From this theme we proceed to illustrate the moral advantages of Geometry.

Geometry is the first and noblest of sciences, and the basis on which the superstructure of free-masonry is erected.

The contemplation of this science in a moral and comprehensive view, fills the mind with rapture. To the true Geometrician, the regions of matter with which he is surrounded, afford ample scope for his admiration, while they open a sublime field for his inquiry and disquisition.

Every particle of matter on which he treads, every blade of grass which covers the field, every flower which blows, and every insect which wings its way in the bounds of expanded space, proves the existence of a first cause, and yields pleasure to the intelligent mind.

The symmetry, beauty, and order displayed in the various parts of animate and inanimate creation, is a pleasing and delightful theme, and naturally leads to the source whence the whole is derived. When we bring within the focus of the eye the variegated carpet of the terrestrial creation, and survey the progress of the vegetative system, our admiration is justly excited. Every plant which grows, every flower that displays its beauties or breathes its sweets, affords instruction and delight. When we extend our vies to the animal creation, and contemplate the varied clothing of every species, we are equally struck with astonishment! and when we trace the lines of geometry drawn by the divine pencil in the beautiful plumage of the feathered tribe, how exalted is our conception of the heavenly work! The admirable structure of plants and animals, and the infinite number of fibres and vessels which runs though the whole, with the apt disposition of one part to another, is a perpetual subject of study to the Geometrician, who, while he adverts to the changes which all undergo in their progress to maturity, is lost in rapture and veneration of the great cause which governs the system.

When he descends into the bowels of the earth, and explores the kingdom of ores, minerals, and fossils, he finds the same instances of divine wisdom and goodness displayed in their formation and structure; every gem and pebble proclaims the handywork of an Almighty Creator.

When he surveys the watery element, and directs his attention to the wonders of the deep, with all the inhabitants of the mighty ocean, he perceives emblems of the fame supreme intelligence. The scales of the largest whale, as well as the penciled shell of the meanest fry, equally yield a theme for this contemplation, on which he fondly dwells, while the symmetry of their formation, and the delicacy of the tints, evince the wisdom of the Divine Artist.

When he exalts his view to the more noble and elevated parts of Nature, and surveys the celestial orbs, how much greater is his astonishment! If, on the principles of geometry and true philosophy, he contemplate the sun, the moon, the stars, the whole concave of heaven, his pride will be humbled while he is lost in awful admiration. The immense magnitude of those bodies, the regularity and rapidity of their motions, and the inconceivable extent of space through which they move, are equally inconceivable; and as far as they exceed human comprehension, baffle his most daring ambition, while, lost in the immensity of the theme, he sinks into his primitive insignificance.

By geometry, therefore, we may curiously trace Nature, through her various windings, to her most concealed recesses. By it, we may discover the power, the wisdom, and the goodness of the grand Artificer of the universe, and view with delight the proportions which connect this vast machine. By it, we may discover how the planets move in their different orbits, and demonstrate their various revolutions. By it, we may account for the return of seasons, and the variety of scenes which each season displays to the discerning eye. Numberless worlds are around us, all framed by the same Divine Artist, which roll through the vast expanse, and are all conducted by the same unerring laws of Nature.

A survey of Nature, and the observation of her beautiful proportions, first determined man to imitate the divine plan, and study symmetry and order. This gave rise to societies, and birth to every useful art. the architect began to design, and the plans which he laid down, improved by experience and time, produced works which have been the admiration of every age.

The Third Section

The Third Section of this degree has recourse to the origin of the institution, and views masonry under two denominations, operative and speculative. These are separately considered, and the principles on which both are founded, particularly explained. Their affinity is pointed out, by allegorical figures, and typical representations. Here the rise of our government, or division into lasses, is examined; the disposition of our rulers, supreme and subordinate, is traced; and reasons are assigned for the establishment of several of our present practices. The progress made in architecture, particularly in the reign of Solomon, is remarked; the number of artists employed in building the temple of Jerusalem, and the privileges which they enjoyed, are specified; the period stipulated for regarding merit is fixed, and the inimitable moral to which that circumstance alludes, explained; the creation of the world is described, and many particulars recited, all of which have been carefully preserved among masons, and transmitted from one age to another by oral tradition. In short, this Section contains a store of valuable knowledge, founded on reason and sacred record, both entertaining and instructive. The whole operates powerfully in enforcing the veneration due to antiquity.

We can afford little assistance by writing to the industrious mason in this Section, as it can only be acquired by oral communication: for an explanation, however, of the connection between operative and speculative masonry, we refer him to the Fourth Section of Book 1, page 9.

As many of the particulars in this Section have a reference to the temple of Jerusalem, we shall here insert the Invocation of Solomon at the Dedication of that edifice:


And Solomon stood before the altar of the Lord, in the presence of all the congregation of Israel, and spread forth his hands; saying:

O Lord God, there is no god like unto thee, in heaven above, or in the earth beneath; who keepest covenant, and shewest mercy, unto thy servants; who walk before thee with all their hearts.

Let thy Word be verified, which thou hast spoken unto David, my father.

Let all the people of the earth know, that the Lord is God; and that there is none else.

Let all the people of the earth know thy Name; and fear thee.

Let all the people of the earth know, that I have built this house, and consecrated it to thy Name.

But, will God indeed dwell upon the earth? Behold - the heaven, and heaven of heavens, cannot contain thee; how much less this house, which I have built:

Yet, I have respect unto my prayer, and to my supplication, and hearken unto my cry:

May thine eyes be open, toward this house, by day and by night; even toward the place, of which thou hast said, My Name shall be there!

And when thy servant, and thy people Israel, shall pray toward this house, hearken to their supplication; hear thou them in heaven, thy dwelling-place; and when thou hearest, forgive!

And the Lord answered, and said, I have hollowed the house which thou hast built, to put my Name there for ever; and mine eyes and mine heart shall be there perpetually.

And all the people, answered, and said - The Lord is gracious, and his mercy endureth for ever.

The Fourth Section

The Fourth and last Section of this Degree is no less replete with useful instruction. Circumstances of great importance to the fraternity are here particularised, and many traditional tenets and customs confirmed by sacred and profane record. The celestial and terrestrial gloves are considered with a minute accuracy; and here the accomplished gentleman may display his talents to advantage, in the elucidation of the sciences, which are classed in a regular arrangement. The stimulus to preferment, and the mode of rewarding merit, are pointed out; the marks of distinction which were conferred on tour ancient brethren as the reward of excellence, explained; and the duties, as well as privileges, of the first branch of their male offspring, defined. This Section also contains many curious observations on the validity of our forms, and concludes with the most powerful incentives to the practice of piety and virtue.

As the seven liberal arts and sciences are illustrated in this Section, it may not be improper to give a short explanation of them.

Grammar teaches the proper arrangement of words, according to the idiom or dialect of any particular people; and that excellency of pronunciation, which enables us to speak or write a language with accuracy, agreeably to reason, an correct usage.

Rhetoric teaches us to speak copiously and fluently on any subject, not merely with propriety, but with all the advantages of force and elegance; wisely contriving to captivate the hearer by strength of argument and beauty of expression, whether it be to entreat or exhort, to admonish or applaud.

Logic teaches us to guide our reason discretionally in the general knowledge of things, and direct our inquiries after truth. It consists of a regular train of argument, whence we infer, deduce, and conclude, according to certain premises laid down, admitted, or granted; and in it are employed, the faculties of conceiving, judging, reasoning, and disposing; which are naturally led on from one gradation to another, till the point in question is finally determined.

Arithmetic teaches the powers and properties of numbers, which is variously effected, by letters, tables, figures, and instruments. By this art, reasons and demonstrations are given, for finding out any certain number, whole relation or affinity to others is already known.

Geometry treats of the powers and properties of magnitudes in general, where length, breadth, and thickness are considered. By this science, the architect is enabled to construct his plans; the general to arrange his soldiers; the engineer to mark out ground for encampments; the geographer to give us the dimensions of the world; to delineate the extent of seas, and specify the divisions of empires, kingdoms, and provinces; and by it the astronomer is enabled to make his observations, and fix the duration of times and seasons, years and cycles. In fine, geometry is the foundation of architecture, and the root of the mathematics.

Music teaches the art of forming concords, so as to compose delightful harmony, by a proportional arrangement of acute, grave, and mixed sounds. This art, by a series of experiments, is reduced to a science, with respect to tones, and the intervals of sound only. It inquires into the nature of concords and discords, and enables us to find out the proportion between them by numbers.

Astronomy is that art, by which we are taught to read the wonderful works of the almighty Creator, in those sacred pages the celestial hemisphere. Assisted by astronomy, we can observe the motions, measure the distances, comprehend the magnitudes, and calculate the periods and eclipses, of the heavenly bodies. By it, we learn the use of the globes, the system of the world, and the primary law of nature. While we are employed in the study of this science, we must perceive unparalleled instances of wisdom and goodness, and, through the whole of creation, trace the glorious Author by his works.

The doctrine of the Spheres is included in the science of astronomy, and particularly considered in this section.

The globes are two artificial spherical bodies, on the convex surface of which are represented the countries, seas, and various parts of the earth, the face of the heavens, the planetary revolutions, and other important particulars. The sphere, with the parts of the earth delineated on its surface, is called the terrestrial globe; and that with the constellations, and other heavenly bodies, the celestial globe. Their principal use, beside serving as maps to distinguish the outward parts of the earth, and the situation of the fixed stars, is to illustrate and explain the phenomena arising from the annual revolution, and the diurnal rotation, of the earth round its own axis. They are the noblest instruments for giving the most distinct idea of any problem or proposition, as well as for enabling us to solve it. Contemplating these bodies, we are inspired with a due reverence for the Deity and his works, and are induced to apply with diligence and attention to astronomy, geography, navigation, and the arts dependent on them, by which society has been so much benefited.

Thus end the different Sections of the Second Lecture, which, with the ceremony used at the opening and closing the Lodge, comprehend the whole of the Second Degree of Masonry. Beside a complete theory of philosophy and physics, this Lecture contains a regular system of science, demonstrated on the clearest principles, and established on the firmest foundation.

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